Articulation refers to the ability to speak clearly and the sounds an individual makes when speaking. It has some overlap into the phonology aspect of language.
Fluency is anything having to do with the flow or forward movement of speech such as stuttering, cluttering, word finding, etc.
This refers to difficulties with eating, swallowing, and drooling and may be impacted by weakness of muscles, timing of movements, or precision of movement. These challenges can be seen in people of all ages.
The brain is the “master mind” of our body and “cognition” is the term used to refer to activities and working of the brain and mind. It encompasses such things as memory, attention, recall, executive functioning, and the interrelationship of all aspects of communication such as articulation, language, fluency, etc.
This refers to difficulties with maintaining adequate pitch, volume, and quality of speech and may be related to structural differences within the face, throat, lungs, and smaller body systems/parts within these structures (lips, teeth, hard palate, vocal cords, etc.).
LIfespan Speech Therapy ENterprises offers inservices and workshops to individuals, families, communities, professionals, and health care settings as appropriate and when requested. Contact for pricing and more information.
These are some of the most important muscles for speaking, communicating, and eating/swallowing. Weakness or reduced movement of any of these muscles may likely result in difficulties chewing/swallowing as well as speaking. In turn, strengthening these muscles often results in improvements to these areas. These muscles are often negatively impacted in head and neck cancer patients or those with degenerative diseases.
Language is divided into two main subdivisions: receptive language (understanding of what is said) and expressive language (what actually comes out of the mouth). Within these two subdivisions, language is further subdivided into five main areas: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics — each of which consist of both receptive and expressive components.
o Phonology: the sounds of language and the rule system people use to put them together into words.
o Morphology: the smallest unit of a word and the word beginnings or endings which are used to change meaning (for example use of plural markers or prefixes to mean not, etc).
o Semantics: vocabulary and concept knowledge
o Syntax: how people put words together to form sentences and the rules each language uses to do this
o Pragmatics: social language and the nuances used in communication with others – encompasses body language, eye gaze, social proximity, using language in socially appropriate ways, etc
This often refers to the intermingling of many speech and language systems. Communication requires both a listener and a speaker and happens very quickly during real time. It consists of both spoken and unspoken messages and can encompass the requirement of picture cues, tactile cues, sounds, language differences, the use of sign, etc. Both the speaker and the listener need to be engaged and “on the same wavelength” for good communication to occur, and show the ability to be “on guard” for when it breaks down and know how to fix it.